Zero-Emission Transit Bus and Refueling Technologies and Deployment Status
Funding Source: MassDOT
Title: Zero-Emission Transit Bus and Refueling Technologies and Deployment Status
Date: December 2017
Summary: The Massachusetts Global Warming Solutions Act and Executive Order 569 mandate greenhouse gas reductions. In addition, in 2014, Massachusetts joined seven other states in a Multi-State Zero-Emission Vehicle Action Plan to increase those vehicles and establish appropriate refueling infrastructure. One strategy to achieving this mandate is implementation of zero-emission buses (ZEBs) in transit fleets. This report summarizes the characteristics of three ZEB technologies: 1) battery electric buses; 2) fuel cell battery electric buses; and 3) fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric buses, as well as relevant implementations in the U.S., through a comprehensive review of the available literature, an online survey of several transit agencies that have implemented or are planning to implement ZEBs, and interviews with transit agency representatives. The focus is on performance and cost characteristics of these technologies as well as implementation approaches, refueling strategies, and funding mechanisms. Challenges associated with the implementation of such vehicles and lessons learned are also summarized. Finally, the report presents in more detail three case examples of Massachusetts transit agencies that have implemented or are in the planning stages of implementing ZEBs and provides information on funding mechanisms available to Massachusetts agencies for procurement of ZEBs.